The once-great Byzantine city of Constantinople was conquered by Muslims under Sultan Mehmet II on 29th May 1453, after a fifty-four day siege. Mehmet immediately began to rebuild the ruined city, including creation of the Topkapi Palace and Grand Bazaar. Religious foundations were financed to build mosques, with their accompanying schools and baths. Ottoman sultans remained in control for over four hundred years, but their Empire was progressively weakened by the loss of territory to Russia, Austria, Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria. Fatally choosing the wrong side in World War I, the Ottomans soon saw Istanbul occupied by French and British troops. At war’s end Turkish nationalists took the opportunity to seize control and the Sultanate was finally abolished by Ataturk in 1922, who introduced…